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#1. OLD TESTAMENT POST-TRIBULATION RAPTURE TYPES AND SHADOWS

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Related Greek Word Studies
601 || ἀποκαλύπτω || apokalupto || to reveal.
602 || ἀποκάλυψις || apokalupsis || revelation.
2347 || θλῖψις || thlipsis || tribulation.
3952 || παρουσία || parousia || coming.

Introduction 1

The Old Testament is full of types and shadows of spiritual truths that are revealed in the New Testament:

(Colossians 2:16-17) "Let no man therefore judge you in meat, or in drink, or in respect of a feast, or of the new moons, or of the Sabbath days:
Which are a shadow of things to come;"
(Hebrews 8:4-5) "For if he were on earth, he would not be a priest, since there are priests who offer gifts according to the law:
Who serve to the example and shadow of heavenly things,"
(Hebrews 10:1) "For the law having a shadow of good things to come, and not the very image."

Also types and shadows are allegories or similes, in which things have a symbolic or figurative meaning, and where an earthly type or shadow indicates, or compares with, some spiritual truth. Therefore, whenever we study out any doctrine from the New Testament, one principle of correct interpretation requires that we compare what we find in the New Testament, with the types and shadows in the Old Testament. Types and shadows, are not the basis of true doctrine by themselves, but they do confirm and illustrate it. All scripture is given by inspiration of God (2 Timothy 3:16), and God does not change (Malachi 3:6; Hebrews 13:8; James 1:17), so if we are correct concerning whether there is a pre tribulation rapture or no pre tribulation rapture, we should find a great deal of agreement between the Old Testament types, and the New Testament teaching. This is a bible study concerning the rapture and the second coming of Jesus Christ, looking at three Old Testament types which prove a post-tribulation rapture.

#1.1 NOAH AND HIS FAMILY ENTERING THE ARK IS A TYPE OF EVENTS BEFORE THE RAPTURE

GENESIS 7:11-13
11 In the sixth hundredth year of Noah's life, in the second month, in the seventeenth day of the month, the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened.
12 And the rain was upon the earth forty days and forty nights.
13 In the same day entered Noah, and Shem, and Ham, and Japheth, the sons of Noah, and Noah's wife, and the three wives of his sons with them, into the ark;

MATTHEW 24:37-41 (Jesus)
37 But as the days of Noah were, so shall also the coming of the Son of man be.
38 For as in the days that were before the flood they were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, until the day that Noah entered into the ark,
39 And did not know until the flood came, and took them all away; so shall also the coming of the Son of Man be.
40 Then shall two be in the field; the one shall be taken, and the other left.
41 Two women shall be grinding at the mill; the one shall be taken, and the other left.

LUKE 17:26-27, 30-37 (Jesus)
26 And as it was in the days of Noah, so shall it be in the days of the Son of man.
27 They ate, they drank, they married wives, they were given in marriage, until the day that Noah entered into the ark, and the flood came, and destroyed them all.
30 Even thus shall it be in the day when the Son of man is revealed.
31 In that day, he who shall be upon the housetop, and his stuff in the house, let him not come down to take it away: and he who is in the field, let him likewise not return back.
32 Remember Lot's wife.
33 Whoever shall seek to save his life shall lose it; and whoever shall lose his life shall preserve it.
34 I tell you, in that night there shall be two men in one bed; the one shall be taken and the other left.
35 Two women shall be grinding together; the one shall be taken, and the other left.
36 Two men shall be in the field; the one shall be taken, and the other left.
37 And they answered and said to him, Where, Lord? And he said to them, Wherever the body is, there will the eagles be gathered together.

Note: These scriptures do not refer to a pre-tribulation rapture or event as some falsely believe, but to the actual second coming of Jesus, at the end of this pre-millennial age. This can be seen by examining the phrase "the coming of the son of man" (Matthew 24:37, 39), in which the word "coming" (Gr. παρουσία, Gtr. parousia) is singular, as it is elsewhere in the New Testament (#3.2 Note). The use of the Greek word "parousia" when destroying "the Beast" (2 Thessalonians 2:8) also refutes the erroneous teaching of some, that the "parousia" refers to a pre-tribulation rapture. The word "comings" does not appear in the New Testament at all, showing that Jesus is only coming back one more time during this age. That is when he will rapture the church (Matthew 24:40-41; Luke 17:34-36;  1Thessalonians 4:15-17), on the last day of this present age, after the tribulation. These scriptures make several other points that confirm this:

(1) The same day that Noah entered the ark (Genesis 7:13), was the same day that it began to rain (Genesis 7:11). Notice God's established pattern, which is to first ensure that his people reach safety, and then immediately destroy the wicked.

(2) The wicked did not undergo a prolonged period of tribulation after this event, but they were destroyed (Luke 17:27). This is the same pattern as when the wicked were destroyed in the day Lot escaped Sodom (See #1.2), and as the Egyptians were in the Red Sea when the Israelites reached the other side (See #1.3). Similarly, the wicked will also be destroyed when Jesus returns (Isaiah 66:15-16; Zechariah 14:12; Malachi 4:1;  2Thessalonians 1:7-9;  2 Peter 3:10).

(3) All of God's chosen people entered the ark at the same time, on the same day. This is a type of the events of the last day, when all of God's chosen people who are alive will be taken to safety before they are raptured on the last day of this present age (#3.1), at Jesus second coming (#3.2), after the tribulation (#3.4), after the sun and moon have been darkened (#3.5), after the heavens are shaken and the stars fall from heaven (#3.6), after the heavens pass away (#3.7), and after the seventh trumpet judgment (#3.8).

(4) There are obviously saved people during the tribulation when people die as martyrs (Revelation 20:4-5), and pre-tribulationists agree with this:

(Gerald B. Stanton KEPT FORM THE HOUR p40) "God will have His saints in the Tribulation - men who repent and secure salvation after the catching up of the church."

However, in this Old Testament type, no one outside the ark was saved after Noah entered it, and the door was shut. They were all killed by the flood. If this Old Testament type of Noah entering the ark was equivalent to a pre-tribulation rapture, no-one would be saved after it, but saved people are alive during the tribulation. This Old Testament type therefore disproves any pre-tribulation rapture, or mid-tribulation rapture of the church, and is evidence for the post-tribulation rapture.

#1.2 LOT AND HIS DAUGHTERS FLEEING FROM SODOM IS A TYPE OF EVENTS BEFORE THE RAPTURE

GENESIS 19:15-26
15 And when the morning arose, then the angels hastened Lot, saying, Arise, take your wife, and your two daughters, who are here; lest you are consumed in the iniquity of the city.
16 And while he lingered, the men laid hold upon his hand, and upon the hand of his wife, and upon the hand of his two daughters; the LORD being merciful to him: and they brought him out, and set him outside the city.
17 And it came to pass when they had brought them out, that he said, Escape for your life; do not look behind you, neither stay in all the plain; escape to the mountain, lest you are consumed.
18 And Lot said to them, Oh, not so, my Lord:
19 Behold now, your servant has found grace in your sight, and you have magnified your mercy, which you have showed to me in saving my life; and I cannot escape to the mountain, lest some evil take me, and I die:
20 Behold now, this city is near to flee to, and it is a little one: Oh, let me escape there, (is it not a little one?) and my soul shall live.
21 And he said to him, See, I have accepted you concerning this thing also, that I will not overthrow this city, for which you have spoken.
22 Make haste, escape there; for I cannot do any thing till you get there. Therefore the name of the city was called Zoar.
23 And the sun was risen upon the earth when Lot entered into Zoar.
24 Then the LORD rained upon Sodom and Gomorrah brimstone and fire from the LORD out of heaven;
25 And he overthrew those cities, and all the plain, and all the inhabitants of the cities, and that which grew upon the ground.
26 But his wife looked back from behind him, and she became a pillar of salt.

LUKE 17:28-37 (Jesus)
28 Likewise also as it was in the days of Lot; they ate, they drank, they bought, they sold, they planted, they built;
29 But the same day that Lot went out of Sodom it rained fire and brimstone from heaven, and destroyed them all.
30 Even thus shall it be in the day when the Son of man is revealed.
31 In that day, he who shall be upon the housetop, and his stuff in the house, let him not come down to take it away: and he who is in the field, let him likewise not return back.
32 Remember Lot's wife.
33 Whoever shall seek to save his life shall lose it; and whoever shall lose his life shall preserve it.
34 I tell you, in that night there shall be two men in one bed; the one shall be taken and the other left.
35 Two women shall be grinding together; the one shall be taken, and the other left.
36 Two men shall be in the field; the one shall be taken, and the other left.
37 And they answered and said to him, Where, Lord? And he said to them, Wherever the body is, there will the eagles be gathered together.

Note: These scriptures do not refer to a pre-tribulation event as some falsely believe, but to the actual second coming of Jesus, at the end of this pre-millennial age. This can be seen by examining the phrase "when the son of man is revealed." (Luke 17:30), in which the verb "is revealed" (Gr. ἀποκαλύπτω, Gtr. apokalupto) is used. The equivalent noun (Gr. ἀποκάλυψις, Gtr. apokalupsis) is often used of the second coming of Jesus:

(1 Corinthians 1:7) "waiting for the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ:"
(2 Thessalonians 1:7) "when the Lord shall be revealed (Lit. in the revelation) from heaven with his mighty angels,"
(1 Peter 1:7) "at the appearing of Jesus Christ:"
(1 Peter 1:13) "at the revelation of Jesus Christ;"

The idea that "apokalupsis" may refer only to a pre-tribulation rapture is refuted by its use (2 Thessalonians 1:7) where the wicked are destroyed at the same time (v8). The idea that "apokalupsis" does not refer to the rapture of the church is refuted by its use (1 Corinthians 1:7) where this is clearly what the church is waiting for. Jesus is only coming back one more time during this age, and that is when he raptures the church (Matthew 24:40-41; Luke 17:34-36; 1 Thessalonians 4:15-17), on the last day of this present age (#3.1), after the tribulation (#3.4).
These scriptures make several other points that confirm this:

(1) The same day that Lot left Sodom (Genesis 19:23; Luke 17:29) was the same day that God rained brimstone and fire on Sodom and Gomorrah (Genesis 19:24; Luke 17:29). Notice God's established pattern again, which is to first ensure that his people reach safety, and then immediately destroy the wicked. The angel could not destroy Sodom until Lot escaped, as he said to Lot, "Make haste, escape there; for I cannot do anything till you get there." (Genesis 19:22).

(2) The wicked did not undergo a prolonged period of tribulation after this event, Sodom was "overthrown in a moment" (Lamentations 4:6), and the wicked were destroyed (Luke 17:29). This is the same pattern as when the wicked were destroyed in the day Noah escaped into the ark (See #1.1), and as the Egyptians were destroyed in the Red Sea when the Israelites reached the other side (See #1.3). This is the same as the wicked will be destroyed when Jesus returns (Isaiah 66:15-16; Zechariah 14:12; Malachi 4:1; 2 Thessalonians 1:7-9;  2 Peter 3:10).

(3) All of God's chosen people, Lot and his family, escaped Sodom at the same time, on the same day. This is a type of the events of the last day, when all of God's chosen people who are alive will be taken to safety before they are raptured on the last day of this present age (#3.1), at Jesus' second coming (#3.2), after the tribulation (#3.4), after the sun and moon have been darkened (#3.5), after the heavens are shaken and the stars fall from heaven (#3.6), after the heavens pass away (#3.7), and after the seventh trumpet judgment (#3.8). This Old Testament type therefore disproves any pre-tribulation rapture, or mid-tribulation rapture of the church.

(4) There are obviously saved people during the tribulation when people die as martyrs (Revelation 20:4-5), and pre-tribulationists agree with this:

(Gerald B. Stanton KEPT FORM THE HOUR p40) "God will have His saints in the Tribulation - men who repent and secure salvation after the catching up of the church."

However, in this Old Testament type, no one inside Sodom or Gomorrah were saved after Lot and his family escaped. They were all killed by the fire. If this Old Testament type of Lot escaping Sodom was equivalent to a pre-tribulation rapture, no-one would be saved after it, but saved people are alive during the tribulation. This Old Testament type therefore disproves any pre-tribulation rapture, or mid-tribulation rapture of the church, and is evidence for the post-tribulation rapture.

#1.3 THE ISRAELITES CROSSING THE RED SEA IS A TYPE OF EVENTS BEFORE THE RAPTURE

EXODUS 14:21-30
21 And Moses stretched out his hand over the sea; and the LORD caused the sea to go back by a strong east wind all that night, and made the sea dry land, and the waters were divided.
22 And the children of Israel went into the midst of the sea upon the dry ground; and the waters were a wall to them on their right hand, and on their left.
23 And the Egyptians pursued, and went in after them into the midst of the sea, even all Pharaoh's horses, his chariots and his horsemen.
24 And it came to pass, that in the morning watch the LORD looked to the host of the Egyptians through the pillar of fire and of the cloud, and troubled the host of the Egyptians.
25 And took off their chariot wheels, and they drove them heavily: so that the Egyptians said, Let us flee from the face of Israel; for the Lord fights for them against the Egyptians.
26 And the LORD said to Moses, Stretch out your hand over the sea, that the waters may come again on the Egyptians, upon their chariots, and upon their horsemen.
27 And Moses stretched forth his hand over the sea, and the sea returned to his strength when the morning appeared; and the Egyptians fled against it; and the LORD overthrew the Egyptians in the midst of the sea.
28 And the waters returned, and covered the chariots, and the horsemen, and all the host of Pharaoh that came into the sea after them; there remained not so much as one of them.
29 But the children of Israel walked upon dry land in the midst of the sea; and the waters were a wall to them, on their right hand, and on their left.
30 Thus the LORD saved Israel that day out of the hand of the Egyptians; and Israel saw the Egyptians dead upon the sea shore.

Note 1: In this Old Testament type of the last day when Jesus returns, the Israelites are a type of the church, and the Egyptians are symbolic of the people of the world. The persecution that came on Israel before they escaped Egypt is a type of the persecution that will come on the church under the fifth seal (Revelation 6:9-11). Pharaoh is a type of the beast, and Pharaoh's army is like the army of the beast which will gather at Armageddon (Revelation 19:19). The crossing of the Red Sea and the destruction of Pharaoh and his host are a type of the events of the day of Armageddon, when the Beast and his army will be destroyed (Revelation 19:20-21), which will occur on the last day of this age (#3.1), after the tribulation (#3.4).
These scriptures make several other points to confirm this:

(1) The same day that the Israelites crossed the red sea, was the same day that God destroyed Pharaoh and his host. Notice God's established pattern again, which is to first ensure that his people reach safety, and then immediately destroy the wicked.
(2) Pharaoh and his host did not undergo a prolonged period of tribulation at this time, they were destroyed as soon as the Israelites were safe across the sea, on the very same day. This is the same pattern as they were destroyed in the days of Noah (#1.1), and in the days of Lot (#1.2).
(3) All of God's chosen people crossed the Red Sea at the same time, on the same day. This is a type of the events of the last day, when all of God's chosen people who are alive will be taken to safety before they are raptured on the last day of this present age (#3.1), at Jesus' second coming (#3.2), after the tribulation (#3.4), after the sun and moon have been darkened (#3.5), after the heavens are shaken and the stars fall from heaven (#3.6), after the heavens pass away (#3.7), and after the seventh trumpet judgment (#3.8).

Note 2: There are also other considerations to support this:

(1) The Israelites were not taken out of Egypt before the plagues came, but were there throughout, and protected by God (Exodus 8:20-24; 9:3-6; 9:22-26; 10:21-23; 12:21-23, 12:29-30). In the same way the remnant church will still be here during the plagues which come on the earth in the last days, from which they will also be protected by the seal of God (2 Corinthians 1:22; Ephesians 1:13; 4:30; 2 Timothy 2:19; Revelation 7:2-8), and the plagues will only come on the wicked (Zechariah 14:12; Daniel 9:27; Revelation 9:4; 16:2; See #3.1).
(2) The Israelites and the Gentiles who escaped Egypt with them (Exodus 12:38; Numbers 11:4) did not cross the red sea separately, but all went together at the same time. Even so, when Jesus returns, because there is no difference between Jew and Gentile, they are all part of the same body of Christ (Acts 15:8-11; Romans 1:16; 2:26-27; 10:12; Galatians 3:26-29; Colossians 3:9-11; Ephesians 2:11-22; 3:5-6; 4:4; See #7.), they also will be taken to safety before they are raptured on the last day of this present age (#3.1), at Jesus' second coming (#3.2), after the tribulation (#3.4), after the sun and moon have been darkened (#3.5), after the heavens are shaken and the stars fall from heaven (#3.6), after the heavens pass away (#3.7), and after the seventh trumpet judgment (#3.8).This Old Testament type therefore disproves any pre-tribulation rapture, or mid-tribulation rapture of the church.
(3) There are obviously saved people during the tribulation when people die as martyrs (Revelation 20:4-5), and pre-tribulationists agree with this:

(Gerald B. Stanton KEPT FORM THE HOUR p40) "God will have His saints in the Tribulation - men who repent and secure salvation after the catching up of the church."

However, in this Old Testament type, no one crosses the Red Sea to join Israel after they reach the other side safely. The Egyptians were all drowned in the sea. If this Old Testament type of Israel crossing the Red Sea was equivalent to a pre-tribulation rapture, no-one would be saved after it, but saved people are alive during the tribulation. This Old Testament type therefore disproves any pre-tribulation rapture, or mid-tribulation rapture of the church, and is evidence for the post-tribulation rapture.

#1.4 The fulfilment of the Types and Shadows about the Rapture

ZECHARIAH 14:3-5
3 Then shall the LORD go forth, and fight against those nations, as when he fought in the day of battle.
4 And his feet shall stand in that day upon the mount of Olives, which is before Jerusalem on the east, and the mount of Olives shall cleave in the midst of it toward the east and toward the west, and there shall be a very great valley; and half of the mountain shall remove toward the north, and half of it toward the south.
5 And you shall flee to the valley of the mountains; for the valley of the mountains shall reach to Azal: yes, you shall flee, like you fled from before the earthquake in the days of Uzziah king of Judah: and the LORD my God shall come, and all the saints with you.

Note 1: This scripture is the ultimate fulfilment concerning the second coming of Jesus, when he returns to earth with great power to destroy the wicked at the battle of Armageddon, and rapture his church. However, before we compare the types and shadows with this time, we need to understand something of what leads up to this event. Although Israel has been in apostasy from before the time of Jesus, God has promised in his word to restore them:

(Isaiah 1:9) "Except the LORD of hosts had left to us a very small remnant, we should have been as Sodom, and we should have been like to Gomorrah."
(Isaiah 10:20-22) "And it shall come to pass in that day, that the remnant of Israel, and such as escape of the house of Jacob, shall no more again stay upon him who smote them; but shall stay upon the LORD, the Holy One of Israel, in truth.
The remnant shall return, even the remnant of Jacob, to the mighty God.
For though your people Israel are as the sand of the sea, yet a remnant of them shall return: the consumption decreed shall overflow with righteousness."
(Isaiah 37:31-32) "And the remnant that is escaped of the house of Judah shall again take root downward, and bear fruit upward:
For out of Jerusalem shall go forth a remnant, and those who escape out of mount Zion: the zeal of the LORD of hosts shall do this."

This prediction of a remnant of Israel being saved comes towards the end of the age:

(Zechariah 12:10-11) "And I will pour upon the house of David, and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the spirit of grace and of supplications: and they shall look upon me whom they have pierced, and they shall mourn for him, as one mourns for his only son, and shall be in bitterness for him, as one who is in bitterness for his firstborn.
In that day shall there be a great mourning in Jerusalem, as the mourning of Hadadrimmon in the valley of Megiddon."
(Zechariah 13:1-2) "In that day there shall be a fountain opened to the house of David and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem for sin and for uncleanness.
And it shall come to pass in that day, says the LORD of hosts, that I will cut off the names of the idols out of the land, and they shall no more be remembered: and also I will cause the prophets and the unclean spirit to pass out of the land."
(Zechariah 13:8-9) "And it shall come to pass, that in all the land, says the LORD, two parts in it shall be cut off and die; but a third shall be left in it.
And I will bring the third part through the fire, and will refine them as silver is refined, and will try them as gold is tried: they shall call on my name, and I will hear them: I will say, It is my people: and they shall say, The LORD is my God."

These scriptures show that in the very last days Jesus is going to be revealed to Israel, "they shall look upon me whom they have pierced," (Zechariah 12:10), after which there will be a sincere repentance and seeking of God granted to Israel (Zechariah 12:10-11). The two thirds who do not accept Jesus will "be cut off and die;" (Zechariah 13:8), so leaving one third alive, who will all be true Christians.

Note 2: When Paul talked about this, he said that Israel had not been cast away, but would be restored even as God promised (Romans 11:1-4). He went on to speak of the remnant:

(Romans 11:5) "Even so then at this present time also there is a remnant according to the election of grace."

This remnant will be the one third who will accept Jesus as their Lord and Saviour. He then went on to speak about all Israel being saved:

(Romans 11:26-27) "And so all Israel shall be saved: as it is written, There shall come out of Zion the Deliverer, and shall turn away ungodliness from Jacob:
For this is my covenant with them, when I shall take away their sins."

Paul is quoting parts of the Old Testament scripture here (Isaiah 59:20; Jeremiah 31:31-34), and "all Israel" refers to the one third who are left after the two thirds have been killed.
When Jesus returns, after the Gentiles have taken over half of Jerusalem (Zechariah 14:2), he will stand on the mount of Olives, and cause a very large valley to be made (Zechariah 14:3-4). All the remaining Jews in Jerusalem will then flee to that valley (Zechariah 14:5). This is the place of safety that God will get his people to before he destroys the wicked, just as in the Old Testament types. In the days of Noah it was the Ark (Genesis 7:13). In the days of Lot it was the city of Zoar (Genesis 19:23-24). In the days of the exodus from Egypt it was the far side of the Red Sea (Exodus 14:26-30). Once God's people reach safety in this valley, then as in the other types that we have seen, the wicked will be destroyed. Their destruction is described like this:

(Zechariah 14:12) "And this shall be the plague with which the LORD will smite all the people that have fought against Jerusalem; Their flesh shall consume away while they stand upon their feet, and their eyes shall consume away in their holes, and their tongue shall consume away in their mouth."
(2 Thessalonians 1:7-8)
"And to you who are troubled rest with us, when the Lord Jesus shall be revealed from heaven with his mighty angels,
In flaming fire taking vengeance on those who do not know God, and who do not obey the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ:"
(2 Peter 3:10)
"But the day of the Lord will come as a thief in the night; in which the heavens shall pass away with a great noise, and the elements shall melt with fervent heat, the earth also and the works that are therein shall be burned up."

Note 3: After the enemies have been destroyed, then Jesus can rise again into the air, and the church can be taken up:

(1 Thessalonians 4:16-17) "For the Lord himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God: and the dead in Christ shall rise first:
Then we who are alive and remain shall be caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air: and so shall we ever be with the Lord."

It seems that the destruction of the wicked with fire has to take place before the rapture in order to agree with other scriptures:

(Job 14:12) "So man lies down, and does not rise: until the heavens are no more, they shall not awake, nor be raised out of their sleep."

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